Welcome to TorchQuantum’s documentation!


title = {Quantumnas: Noise-adaptive search for robust quantum circuits}, author = {Wang, Hanrui and Ding, Yongshan and Gu, Jiaqi and Lin, Yujun and Pan, David Z and Chong, Frederic T and Han, Song}, booktitle = {The 28th IEEE International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA-28)}, year = {2022}


A PyTorch-based hybrid classical-quantum dynamic neural networks framework.

MIT License



git clone https://github.com/mit-han-lab/torchquantum.git
cd torchquantum
pip install --editable .


Construct quantum NN models as simple as constructing a normal pytorch model.

import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
import torchquantum as tq
import torchquantum.functional as tqf

class QFCModel(nn.Module):
  def __init__(self):
    self.n_wires = 4
    self.q_device = tq.QuantumDevice(n_wires=self.n_wires)
    self.measure = tq.MeasureAll(tq.PauliZ)

    self.encoder_gates = [tqf.rx] * 4 + [tqf.ry] * 4 + \
                         [tqf.rz] * 4 + [tqf.rx] * 4
    self.rx0 = tq.RX(has_params=True, trainable=True)
    self.ry0 = tq.RY(has_params=True, trainable=True)
    self.rz0 = tq.RZ(has_params=True, trainable=True)
    self.crx0 = tq.CRX(has_params=True, trainable=True)

  def forward(self, x):
    bsz = x.shape[0]
    # down-sample the image
    x = F.avg_pool2d(x, 6).view(bsz, 16)

    # reset qubit states

    # encode the classical image to quantum domain
    for k, gate in enumerate(self.encoder_gates):
      gate(self.q_device, wires=k % self.n_wires, params=x[:, k])

    # add some trainable gates (need to instantiate ahead of time)
    self.rx0(self.q_device, wires=0)
    self.ry0(self.q_device, wires=1)
    self.rz0(self.q_device, wires=3)
    self.crx0(self.q_device, wires=[0, 2])

    # add some more non-parameterized gates (add on-the-fly)
    tqf.hadamard(self.q_device, wires=3)
    tqf.sx(self.q_device, wires=2)
    tqf.cnot(self.q_device, wires=[3, 0])
    tqf.qubitunitary(self.q_device0, wires=[1, 2], params=[[1, 0, 0, 0],
                                                           [0, 1, 0, 0],
                                                           [0, 0, 0, 1j],
                                                           [0, 0, -1j, 0]])

    # perform measurement to get expectations (back to classical domain)
    x = self.measure(self.q_device).reshape(bsz, 2, 2)

    # classification
    x = x.sum(-1).squeeze()
    x = F.log_softmax(x, dim=1)

    return x


  • Easy construction of parameterized quantum circuits in PyTorch.

  • Support batch mode inference and training on CPU/GPU.

  • Support dynamic computation graph for easy debugging.

  • Support easy deployment on real quantum devices such as IBMQ.


  • ☒ Support more gates

  • ☒ Support compile a unitary with descriptions to speedup training

  • ☐ Support other measurements other than analytic method

  • ☒ In einsum support multiple qubit sharing one letter. So that more than 26 qubit can be simulated.

  • ☒ Support bmm based implementation to solve scalability issue

  • ☒ Support conversion from torchquantum to qiskit


  • Python >= 3.7

  • PyTorch >= 1.8.0

  • configargparse >= 0.14

  • GPU model training requires NVIDIA GPUs

MNIST Example

Train a quantum circuit to perform MNIST task and deploy on the real IBM Yorktown quantum computer as in mnist_example.py script:

python mnist_example.py





QuantumDevice class which stores the statevector


Encoding layers to encode classical values to quantum domain


Quantum gate functions


Quantum gate classes


Layer templates such as RandomLayer


Measurement of quantum states to get classical values


Quantum gate graph used in static mode


Layer templates for SuperCircuits


Convertors and processors for easy deployment on IBMQ


More examples for training QML and VQE models

More Examples

The examples/ folder contains more examples to train the QML and VQE models. Example usage for a QML circuit:

# train the circuit with 36 params in the U3+CU3 space
python examples/train.py examples/configs/mnist/four0123/train/baseline/u3cu3_s0/rand/param36.yml

# evaluate the circuit with torchquantum
python examples/eval.py examples/configs/mnist/four0123/eval/tq/all.yml --run-dir=runs/mnist.four0123.train.baseline.u3cu3_s0.rand.param36

# evaluate the circuit with real IBMQ-Yorktown quantum computer
python examples/eval.py examples/configs/mnist/four0123/eval/x2/real/opt2/300.yml --run-dir=runs/mnist.four0123.train.baseline.u3cu3_s0.rand.param36

Example usage for a VQE circuit:

# Train the VQE circuit for h2
python examples/train.py examples/configs/vqe/h2/train/baseline/u3cu3_s0/human/param12.yml

# evaluate the VQE circuit with torchquantum
python examples/eval.py examples/configs/vqe/h2/eval/tq/all.yml --run-dir=runs/vqe.h2.train.baseline.u3cu3_s0.human.param12/

# evaluate the VQE circuit with real IBMQ-Yorktown quantum computer
python examples/eval.py examples/configs/vqe/h2/eval/x2/real/opt2/all.yml --run-dir=runs/vqe.h2.train.baseline.u3cu3_s0.human.param12/

Detailed documentations coming soon.


Quantum noise is the key challenge in Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) computers. Previous work for mitigating noise has primarily focused on gate-level or pulse-level noise-adaptive compilation. However, limited research efforts have explored a higher level of optimization by making the quantum circuits themselves resilient to noise. We propose QuantumNAS, a comprehensive framework for noise-adaptive co-search of the variational circuit and qubit mapping. Variational quantum circuits are a promising approach for constructing QML and quantum simulation. However, finding the best variational circuit and its optimal parameters is challenging due to the large design space and parameter training cost. We propose to decouple the circuit search and parameter training by introducing a novel SuperCircuit. The SuperCircuit is constructed with multiple layers of pre-defined parameterized gates and trained by iteratively sampling and updating the parameter subsets (SubCircuits) of it. It provides an accurate estimation of SubCircuits performance trained from scratch. Then we perform an evolutionary co-search of SubCircuit and its qubit mapping. The SubCircuit performance is estimated with parameters inherited from SuperCircuit and simulated with real device noise models. Finally, we perform iterative gate pruning and finetuning to remove redundant gates. Extensively evaluated with 12 QML and VQE benchmarks on 10 quantum comput, QuantumNAS significantly outperforms baselines. For QML, QuantumNAS is the first to demonstrate over 95% 2-class, 85% 4-class, and 32% 10-class classification accuracy on real QC. It also achieves the lowest eigenvalue for VQE tasks on H2, H2O, LiH, CH4, BeH2 compared with UCCSD. We also open-source torchquantum for fast training of parameterized quantum circuits to facilitate future research.

QuantumNAS Framework overview:

QuantumNAS models achieve higher robustness and accuracy than other baseline models:


Hanrui Wang (hanrui@mit.edu)